Stop sign at the Zambia and Zimbabwe border bridge. The Victoria Falls Bridge is 100 years old in 2005.  The Victoria Falls Bridge was the brainchild of Cecil Rhodes, a key feature in his dream of a Cape to Cairo railway, even though he never visited the Victoria Falls and died two years before the railway reached them - before construction of the Bridge had begun. The preliminary surveying of the ground for the bridge was made in 1900-01, during the time the Boer War was raging; communications southwards were cut, and the construction of the railway to Victoria Falls was much delayed, but never quite suspended, throughout military operations. The arena of the war did not include Rhodesia, and the work of railway construction never ceased throughout the whole period. In 1900 Rhodes was asked to write a forward for the book 'From Cape to Cairo' by Grogan and Sharp. Ewart Scott Grogan, together with Harry Sharp undertook the epic overland journey from the Cape to Cairo, although Grogan was the only one to complete the entire journey, and thus become the first man to achieve such an undertaking. They travelled by train, boat and other means where they could, but walked for much of their journey across the African continent. Inspired by reading Frederic Courtney Selous's 'A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa', Grogan set out to prove his worth and gain the hand of his love in marriage. Their journey took three years, Grogan reaching Cairo in 1900. Sir Charles Metcalfe, a close personal friend of Rhodes, followed his wishes and determined to locate the bridge just below the Falls. He carried out the preliminary examinations of the site in June 1901 before returning to Britain to raise funds for the project. In 2005 a major 100 year survey of the bridge was undertaken. Previous reports by officials from the National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) had raised the danger posed by the bridge by heavy loads and it was closed to heavy traffic for over a year days to allow for emergency work. A report, published in January 2005 by NRZ highlighted "excessive vibrations being felt whenever a heavy truck transverses the bridge". During the restrictions trains crossed at less than walking pace and trucks were limited to a load of 30 tons, necessitating heavier trucks to make a long diversion via the Kazungula Ferry or Chirundu Bridge. The choice for engineers was either to reconstruct or reinforce the bridge, but they settled for reinforcement. Following the repairs costing US$1.7 million the bridge re-opened to heavy traffic on 15 June 2006, and can now sustain loads of up to 56 tons for the next five years. During this period, more repairs will be done to enable the bridge to survive another century. Replacement of the bridge with a similar modern structure has been estimated to cost over US$32 million. In November 2010 it was announced that a toll on the Victoria Falls Bridge was being considered in a bid to raise the necessary funds for maintenance. Recommendations made by international consultants have said it could last another 100 years if properly maintained. It has been estimated that more than US$1.9 million is needed to inject into the maintenance of the bridge - US$800,000 will be for the upgrade of the railway deck; US$300,000 for the upgrade of the footway deck and US$800,000 for the upgrade of the roadway deck. Owned originally by Rhodesia Railways, Victoria Falls Bridge is now jointly owned by the national railways of Zambia and Zimbabwe. It is managed by the Emerged Railways Properties (Private) Limited (ERP), an interstate company jointly owned by the Governments of Zimbabwe and Zambia. There are no regular rail passenger services over the bridge today. However, steam hauled excursions in a historic dining saloon are offered daily between Victoria Falls station (Zimbabwe) and Livingstone (Zambia). In addition, several luxury cruise trains make the journey from South Africa as far as Livingstone, crossing the bridge as part of their journey. Today the Victoria Falls Bridge is the location for the 111 metre Shearwater bungee jump, which started operations in 1993. The local Chief Mukuni appeared on the bridge in full ceremonial regalia, accompanied by most of the village, to take his turn to jump. After a few false starts he toppled into the void, to the accompaniment of wild cheers from the onlookers. It has been claimed that this feet should afford him a place in the Guinness Book of Records as the first African Chief to have bungeed in the history of the sport. Over 50,000 people have committed themselves to the thrill of jumping off the bridge without incident. The operation has now expanded to include a bungee swing and zip line. In 2010 a refurbished viewing platform, restaurant and bar, together with an interpretive museum, was opened on the Zambian side. The latest tourism activity on the bridge are interactive historical bridge tours, where groups are guided under the bridge using safety harnesses and ropes.